Effective negotiation


The entire cosmic economy is an interactive phenomenon of animate and inanimate objects. Furthermore, objects are interdependent on each other for growth and survival. Human beings are the epitome of Divine Creative Activity. The interactive feature of humanity is a vital aspect of the Divine Scheme of Creation. A rational-moral human interaction accelerates/smoothes the evolution of individuals and groups. Humanity faces multiple challenges during varied interactions. The most complex, damaging and frequent problem of interactive life is the lack of communication. It creates mutual hatred and mistrust between individuals/groups/nations and leads to conspiracies, rivalries and wars. The very basis of miscommunication is Perception errors.Perception errors produce misconceptions between individuals/groups, so miscommunication arises. Consequently, the people involved break contact with each other and opt for a long silence or for confrontation or indifference. The unwanted situation can be resolved through negotiation. Negotiation is useful in all spheres of interactive life; It is used to bridge the gaps between husband and wife, parents and children, businessmen and workers, business partners, political leaders, etc. To conduct a successful negotiation, we must understand the ins and outs of negotiation. Negotiation is the process of managing communication conflicts to reach a compromise/best solution.Successful trading is called Effective Trading. Effective negotiation is knowledge-based, manner-driven, and wisdom-guided negotiation. Create pragmatic and satisfying solutions for each party.


Man is an intelligent creation of the Absolute Intelligence. The distinctive feature of the human being, the intellect or perceptual intelligence, makes the human being the supreme creation of the universe. But, the intellect can misjudge/misinterpret due to ignorance or lustful tendencies of human nature. Perceptual errors or intellectual errors lead to information processing/final judgment biases. Three types of perceptual errors can arise in a communication process.

Generalization: –A small amount of information is used to draw universal conclusions, for example, older people are conservative, this person is older so they are conservative, or a humble person is considered to be more honest than a frowning person, although there is no consistent relationship between conservative attitude & age or courtesy & honesty. Multiple social divisions, such as family divisions and neighborhood divisions, arise due to unscientific generalizations.

Projection: –It occurs when people attribute to others the characteristics or feelings they have, for example, a person feels that he would be frustrated if he were in the other position, then he is likely to perceive that the other person is frustrated. People respond differently to similar situations, so projecting your own feelings onto others may be wrong. The multiple failures of political communication are generally due to erroneous projections.

Energy: – Power is an important leverage during interactions; It gives one party an advantage over the other. Power develops the perception that you have power and can impose a verdict, the perception of power limits viable options or can turn someone into a wrongdoer, because power has germs of corruption-development – in Acton’s words, ‘Power it tends to corrupt and absolutizes the powers it absolutely corrupts. The main sources of power are: information and experience, control over resources, location/position in an organization. Power tactics should be used only as a last resort. Ignoring the temporary appropriateness of power tactics can create chaos in the environment; a chaotic situation has certain consequences for the advanced user.


The salient features of a negotiation process are:

Interdependence:- In the negotiation, both parties need each other to reach a solution. This situation is called interdependence. Interdependence leads to mutual adjustments during the negotiation.

Mutual Adjustments:- The negotiating parties know that they can influence the outcome of the other and the other can, in turn, influence their outcome. This mutual adjustment continues throughout the negotiation process. Mutual Adjustments persuade negotiating parties toward flexibility and concessions.

Flexibility and Concession:- Flexibility and compromise are necessary to reach an agreement. To reach an acceptable result, it is essential to know what we want and what we are willing to give to get something. It sounds simple, but most people go into negotiations without planning for the desired results and believe it is a matter of power or tactics. Unbalanced approach can lead to failure. It should be noted that a lenient approach to concessions can lead to unfair lawsuits, while a strict approach to concessions can create an environment of anger. An optimal mix of perceptual intelligence, emotional intelligence, and intentional intelligence is invoked for honest and precise flexibility and trade-offs. A negotiation usually encounters two dilemmas:

  • Honesty Dilemma:-The dilemma has to do with which part of the truth should be told to the other part. On the one hand, telling the person everything about your situation can give them the opportunity to take advantage of you. On the other hand, not telling the other person anything about their needs and wants can lead to an information stalemate. A principled position towards the exchange of information is extremely effective for a successful negotiation. It should be noted that the falsification of information/emotions is finally discovered.
  • Confidence Dilemma:- The second dilemma has to do with how much to believe what the other party tells you. If you believe everything the other party says, you may be taken advantage of. If you don’t believe anything, there would be a dead end. Trust depends on many factors, such as the party’s reputation, past experiences, and current circumstances. The beginning, “the truth is always green” it is very relevant for a successful negotiation; otherwise one has to tell countless lies to hide a lie, even then the truth is finally exposed.


There is no standard, scientific pattern of successful trading; however, a general outline can be prepared to start any negotiation.

Framing: –It is the conceptual platform through which the parties in a negotiation define the problem. For example, the Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan can be negotiated in a religious or historical framework.

Goal setting:-It gives basis to the negotiation. It is necessary for a successful negotiation. Goal setting includes goal statement, goal prioritization, identification of multiple goal packages.

Calendar: –Effective planning requires hard work in a series of steps, such as:

  • Definition of problems, (agenda) – Control the number and size of topics in the discussion,
  • Desirability of defined topics – Improve the convenience of the options and alternatives that each party presents to the other,
  • Define common interests/needs – Establish common ground on which the parties can find a basis for reaching agreement on the issues,
  • Research- It includes againstConsult related stakeholders, gather information, develop supporting arguments, and analyze the part.

Development strategy: –Strategy is a pattern of intentional work to achieve some goals. It is based on good planning. Effective negotiation modal strategy formulation identifies four elements for formulating effective strategies:

  • Choice: – the negotiation is voluntary, that is, a matter of choice and the solution cannot be imposed.
  • Restrictions: – Trading results are subject to some restrictions. The modal suggests pragmatism over doctrine.
  • Interdependence: – The motivated parties are interdependent.,
  • Imperfect information: – The parties have imperfect information about each other’s strengths and weaknesses.


Distributive Negotiation

In distributive/win-lose negotiation, the parties seek their own maximum advantage by concealing information, deception, or the use of manipulative tactics. All of these actions can lead to bitterness or hostility. It should be noted that effective negotiation is an attempt to resolve a conflict with reason or without force. The second type of distributive trading is the accommodative or win-lose strategy. One party is ready for some losses for the time being or in the short term to make some profits in the long term.

Integrative Negotiation

It is a win-win/cooperative negotiation. It allows both parties to achieve their goals. Multiple business ties, such as partnership, and varied social ties, such as kinship, are generally based on a win-win approach, that is, both parties benefit from the contact. The approach behind integrative negotiation is synergy, that is, expanding/creating possibilities so that the benefits increase for all parties.


Negotiation is an extremely complex phenomenon. It requires knowledge, wisdom and courtesy to arrive at some result acceptable to the negotiating parties. The decision-making process in negotiation goes through four phases:

Orientation In the orientation phase, the members of the group socialize, establish certain communication rules and agree on the purpose of the meeting.

conflict In the conflict phase, the parties begin to discuss their positions on the problem, the atmosphere is filled with discussions/confrontation/war of words.

Appearance In the emergency phase, members come to some acceptable solution and put aside differences and objections because they are convinced.

Reinforcement In the reinforced phase, the feelings of the group are reconstructed, the results of the negotiation are summarized for each party, and the solution is implemented in a way that blocks future conflicts.

The negotiating parties propose three solutions: win win, win-loseY lose win. The principle behind the win-win strategy is that the conflicting parties can better solve their problem by working together than by going to war. The principle behind the win-lose strategy is that conflicting parties stand to gain more by manipulating the situation than by developing a consensus. The decision about manipulation must be based on pure reason subject to certain moral values. Otherwise, it would be detrimental to the handler. The principle behind the accommodative or win-lose strategy is that one of the conflicting parties can obtain more benefits in the long term by accommodating the other party in the short term. The decision on accommodative negotiation must be based on pure reason subject to some scientific evaluation; otherwise it may be detrimental to the accommodating party.

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